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Summary of Expansion and Consolidation of British Power in India

Summary of Expansion and Consolidation of British Power in India

Factors Which Gave Success to British in India

  • Superior Arms
  • Military Discipline
  • Civil Discipline
  • Brilliant Leadership (which did not bother about adopting
  • unscrupulous practices)
  • Financial Strength
  • Nationalist Pride

Conflict Between English and Nawabs of Bengal

  • Battle of Plassey (June 23, 1757): Robert Clive’s victory over Siraj-ud-daula laid the territorial foundation of British rule in India.
  • Battle of Buxar (1764): Clive’s victory over the combined armies of Nawab of Bengal, Nawab of Awadh and the Mughal Emperor at Buxar laid the real foundation of the English power
  • Treaty of Allahabad (1765): Granted the Diwani Rights of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa to the English.
    • Treaty with Nawab of Awadh
    • Treaty with Shah Alam II, Mughal Emperor
  • Dual Government—1765-72

British Conquest of Mysore

  • First Anglo-Mysore War (1767-69); Treaty of Madras
  • Second Anglo-Mysore War (1779-1784); Treaty of Mangalore
  • Third Anglo-Mysore War (1790-92); Treaty of Seringapatam
  • Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799); Mysore is conquered by British forces

Anglo-Maratha Struggle for Supremacy

  • First Anglo-Maratha War (1775-82); Treaty of Surat (1775), Treaty of Purandhar (1776), and Treaty of Salbai (1782)
  • Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803-05); Treaty of Bassein, 1802
  • Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-1819)
  • Causes for the defeat of the Marathas
    1. Inept leadership
    2. Defective nature of state
    3. Loose political set-up
    4. Inferior military system
    5. Ustable economic policy
    6. Superior English diplomacy and espionage
    7. Progressive English outlook

Conquest of Sindh (1843)

● Lord Ellenborough was the Governor-General of India

Conquest of Punjab

  • Treaty of Amritsar (1809), Ranjit Singh and the British
  • First Anglo-Sikh War (1845-46)
  • Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848-49)

British Paramountcy in Action

Ring-fence Policy of Warren Hastings

Subsidiary Alliance of Wellesley

    • Subsidised States:
      Hyderabad (1798; 1800)
      Mysore (1799)
      Tanjore (October 1799)
      Awadh (November 1801)
      Peshwa (December 1801)
      Bhonsle of Berar (December 1803)
      Sindhia (February 1804)
      Jodhpur (1818)
      Jaipur (1818)
      Macheri (1818)
      Bundi (1818)
      Bharatpur (1818)

Doctrine of Lapse

    • Lapsed States under Lord Dalhousie (1848-56)
      Satara (1848)
      Sambhalpur (1849)
      Bhagat (1850)
      Udaipur (1850)
      Nagpur (1854)
      Jhanshi (1855)
      Awadh (1856; on charge of mal-administration)

Relations of British India with Neighbouring Countries

  • Anglo-Nepal Relations (Treaty of Sagauli, 1816)
  • Anglo-Burma Relations
    • First Anglo-Burma War, 1824-26
    • Second Anglo-Burma War, 1852
    • Third Anglo-Burma War, 1885
  • Anglo-Tibetan Relations
    • Treaty of Lhasa (1904)
  • Anglo-Afghan Relations
    • Forward Policy of Auckland
    • First Anglo-Afghan War (1839-1842)
    • John Lawrence’s Policy of Masterly Inactivity
    • Lytton and the Policy of Proud Reserve
    • Second Anglo-Afghan War (1870-80)
    • Treaty of Gandamak (May 1879)
  • North-West Frontier
    • Durand Agreement (1893)
Vishal Singh

Vishal Singh

“Hi, I am Vishal Singh. I completed my Graduations in Physics in 2020 at VKSU, Arrah. Now I'm Preparing For Civil Service Exams. I'm Interested Physics as well as History, Polity, Geography, Technology & Science.

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