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Medieval History Notes: Delhi Sultanate Part -2

Medieval History Notes: Delhi Sultanate Part -2

Medieval History Notes: We have covered Slave Dynasty and Khilji Dynasty. In this article, we will be covering Tughlaq dynasty, Sayyid dynasty, and Lodhi dynasty. The causes of the decline of Delhi Sultanate.  And also some terms related to central departments and general administration of Delhi Sultanate.

Medieval History Notes: Delhi Sultanate Part -2

We have covered Slave Dynasty and Khilji Dynasty. In this article, we will be covering Tughlaq dynasty, Sayyid dynasty, and Lodhi dynasty. The causes of the decline of Delhi Sultanate.  And also some terms related to central departments and general administration of Delhi Sultanate.

Tughlaq dynasty (1320-1412):

Emperor Period
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq 1320-24
Muhammad Tughlaq 1324-51
Firoz Shah Tughlaq 1351-88
Mohammad Khan 1388
Ghiyassuddin Tughlaq Shah II 1388
Abu Baqr 1389-90
Nasiruddin Muhammad 1390-94
Humayun 1394-95
Nasiruddin Mahmud 1395-1412


Ruler Period of Rule Important facts
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq 1320-1325 1. Khusrau Khan, the last king of the Khilji dynasty was killed by Ghazni Malik, and Ghazni Malik ascended the throne assuming the title Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.
2. He died in an accident and his son Jauna (Ulugh Khan) succeeded him under the title Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq.Achievements of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq
1. Reintroduced the food laws of Ala-ud-Din
2. Supressed the rebellions in the distant provinces with strong hand and resorted the peace and order
3. Organised better postal system
4. Encouraged agriculture
Mohammad-bin Tughlaq 1325-1351 1. Prince Jauna, Son of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq ascended the throne in 1325
2. He tried to introduce many administrative reforms. He had 5 ambitious projects for which he has become particularly debatable.
Taxation in the Doab (1326)
Transfer of Capital (1327)
Introduction of Token Currency (1329)
Proposed Khurasan Expedition (1329)
Qarachil Expedition (1330)
3. His five projects have led to revolts all around his empire. His last days were spent in checking the revolts
1335 — Mudurai became independent (Jalaluddin Ahsan Shah)
1336 — Foundation of Vijayanagar (Harihar & Bukka), Warrangal became independent (Kanhaiya)
1341-47 — Revolts of Sada Amirs & Foundation of Bahamani in 1347 (Hasan Gangu)
He died in Thatta while campaigning in Sindh against Taghi, a Turkish slave.
Firoz Shah Tughlaq 1351-1388 1. He was a cousin of Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq. After his death the nobles and the theologians of the court selected Firoz Shah as the next Sultan.
2. Established of Diwan-i-Khairat (department for poor and needy people) and Diwan-l-Bundagan (department of slaves)
4. Making Iqtadari system hereditary.
5. Construction of canals for irrigation from Yamuna to the city of Hissar
6. From the Sutlej to the Ghaggar. From the Ghaggar to Firozabad
7. From Mandvi and Sirmour Hills to Hansi in Haryana.
8. Establishment of four new towns, Firozabad, Fatehabad, Jaunpur and Hissar.
After Firoz Shah Tughlaq 1388-1414 1. The Tughlaq dynasty would not survive much after Firoz Shah’s death. The Malwa, Gujarat and Sharqi (Jaunpur) Kingdoms broke away from the Sultanate.
2. Timur Invasion: (1398-99) Timur, a Turk, invaded India in 1398 during the reign of Muhammad Shah Tughlaq, the last ruler of Tughlaq dynasty. His army mercilessly sacked and plundered Delhi.
3. Timur returned to Central Asia, leaving a nominee to rule to Punjab which ended the Tughlaq dynasty.

Sayyid dynasty (1414 – 1450):  

Emperor Period
Khizr Khan 1414-21
Mubarak Shah 1421-33
Muhammad Shah 1421-43
Alauddin Alam Shah 1443-51


Ruler Period of Rule Important facts
Khizr Khan 1414-1421 1. Timur’s nominee captured Delhi and was proclaimed the new Sultan and the first of the Sayyid Dynasty.
2. They ruled over Delhi and surroundings districts.
Mubarak Shah 1421-1434 1. He succeeded Khizr at the throne after his successful expeditions against Mewatis, Katehars and the Gangetic Doab area.
2. He was killed by the nobles in his own court.
Muhammad Shah 1434-1443 1. The nobles put Muhammad Shah on the throne, but could not survive the in-fighting among the nobles in the court.
2. He was authorized to rule a meagre area of around 30 miles and rest of the Sultanate was ruled by the nobles.
Alam Shah 1443-1451 The last Sayyid king descended in favour of Bahlol Lodhi and he retired. Thus began the Lodhi dynasty, which confined to Delhi and a few surrounding areas.

 The Lodhi Dynasty (1451-1526 AD):-

Ruler Period of Rule Important facts
Bahlol Lodhi 1451-88 1. Bahlol Lodhi was one of the Afghan sardars who established himself in Punjab after invasion of Timur
2. He founded the Lodhi dynasty. He founded the rule of the Lodhi dynasty by usurping the throne from the last of the Sayyid rulers.
3. He was a strong and brave ruler. He tried to restore the glory of Delhi by conquering territories around Delhi and after continuous war for 26 years, he succeeded in extending his authority over Jaunpur, Rewail, Itawah, Mewar, Sambhal, Gwalior etc.
4. He was a kind and generous ruler. He was always prepared to help his subjects.
5. Though he was himself illiterate, he extended his patronage to art and learning. He died in 1488.
Sikandar Lodhi 1489-1517 1. Sikandar Lodhi was the son of Bahlol Lodhi who conquered Bihar and Western Bengal.
2. He shifted his capital from Delhi to Agra, a city founded by him.
3. Sikandar was a fanatical Muslim and he broke the sacred images of the Jwalamukhi 4. Temple at Naga Kot and ordered the temples of Mathura to be destroyed.
5. He took a keen interest in the development of agriculture. He introduced the Gaz-i-Sikandari (Sikandar’s yard) of 32 digits for measuring cultivated fields.
6. He was a staunch Sunni and a Muslim fanatic. He lacked religious tolerance. In the name of religion, he perpetuated untold cruelties on the Hindus.
Ibrahim Lodhi 1517-26 1. He was the last king of Lodhi dynasty and the last Sultan of Delhi
2. He was the son of Sikandar Lodhi
3. The Afghan nobility was brave and freedom-loving people but it was because of its fissiparous and individualistic tendencies that the Afghan monarchy was weakened. Moreover, Ibrahim Lodhi asserted the absolute power of the Sultan.
4. At last Daulat Khan Lodhi, the governor of Punjab invited Babur to overthrow Ibrahim Lodhi; Babur accepted the offer and inflicted a crushing defeat on Ibrahim Lodhi in the first battle of Panipat in 1526.
5. No Sultan of India except Sultan Ibrahim had been killed on the battle field.

 Causes of Decline of Delhi Sultanate:

  • Deposited and military type of government which did not have the confidence of the people.
  • Degeneration of Delhi Sultans (esp. the wild projects of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq, Incompetence of Firoz Tughlaq).
  • War of succession as there was no fixed law of it.
  • Greed and incompetency of nobles.
  • Defective military organisation.
  • Vastness of empire and poor means of communication.
  • Financial instability.
  • Number of slaves increased to 1, 80,000 at the time of Firoz Tughlaq which was a burden on the treasury.
  • Invasion of Timur.

Important Central Departments

Department Function
Diwan-i-Risalat (Foreign Minister) Department of appeals
Diwan-i-Ariz Military department
Diwan-i-Bandagan Department of slaves
Diwan-i-Qaza-i-Mamalik Department of justice
Diwan-i-Isthiaq Department of pensions
Diwan-i-Mustakhraj Department of arrears
Diwan-i-Khairat Department of charity
Diwan-i-Kohi Department of agriculture
Diwan-i-Insha Department of correspondence

Important Central Officials

Post Role
Wazir The chief Minister of the State-in Charge of revenue and finances, controlled by other department.
Ariz-i-Mamlik Head of Military department
Qazi Legal Officer(dispensed civil law based on Muslim law Shariat)
Wakil-i-dar Controller of the royal households.
Barid-i-mumalik Head of the state news agency
Amir-i-majlis Officer-in-charge of royal feasts, conference and festivals.
Majlis-i-am Council of friends and officers consulted on important affairs of the state.
Dahir-i-mumalik Head of the royal correspondence.
Sadr-us-sudur Dealt with the religious matters and endowments.
Sadr-i-jahan Officers-in-charge of religious and charitable endowment.
Amir-i-dad Public prosecutors
Naib wazir Deputy Minister
Mushrif-i-mumalik Accountant general

Vishal Singh

Vishal Singh

“Hi, I am Vishal Singh. I completed my Graduations in Physics in 2020 at VKSU, Arrah. Now I'm Preparing For Civil Service Exams. I'm Interested Physics as well as History, Polity, Geography, Technology & Science.

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